Discovering the Photoshop interface
You start Photoshop by opening a project file or an existing image. You can create a new project or open an existing Photoshop file, and I show you how to do that in Chapter 2.
For the following exercises, you need to open an existing file. If you need to create a new project, choose File⇒New⇒Photoshop CS5 Project or choose File⇒New⇒Photoshop CS4 Project. Depending on your version of Photoshop, you may have a choice of Preview or Photoshop as the start application. If you don’t, just choose to open the file or image you want.
The main window of Photoshop looks like the one shown in Figure 1-1. At the upper-left side
Adobe Photoshop Express is Adobe’s simplest photo editing application. It was introduced to complement the launch of the Creative Cloud (formerly Adobe Creative Suite). It also provides a free way to preview and edit photos and graphics right from your phone.
Adobe Photoshop is a professional image editing application. It is the most popular graphics editor used to create, modify and design images. Photoshop was initially launched as a separate software and later acquired by Adobe in 2012. It is the most popular alternative to Photoshop, with a massive following.
Photoshop is available for macOS and Windows. It also comes preinstalled with macOS. You can always download the software from here.
Note: With the exception of the standalone Photoshop Express, all Adobe products are available free of cost.
Installing Photoshop Elements
Adobe Photoshop Elements
Adobe Photoshop Elements is an alternative to traditional Photoshop. It is a free, beginner-friendly image editing software that has features similar to Photoshop but lacks some advanced features.
Photoshop Elements is available for macOS and Windows. It also comes preinstalled with macOS. You can always download the software from here.
Installing Photoshop Express
Adobe Photoshop Express
Adobe Photoshop Express is a simple photo editing app that was launched in 2014. It has the same features as the Photoshop app, but it is smaller and simpler.
Photoshop Express is available for iOS and macOS. You can always download it from here.
Known Photoshop Alternatives
Here are some other graphic design and design tools that are available as a web app or desktop application.
1. Adobe Illustrator:
Adobe Illustrator is an image editor developed by Adobe that is used to create high-quality graphics, logos and illustrations. It has all the features of Photoshop. It also has special features for creating animation.
Adobe Illustrator is available for macOS, iOS and Windows. It comes preinstalled with macOS. You can download the software from here.
2. Adobe Camera Raw:
Adobe Camera Raw is a high-performance photo editing application developed by Adobe. It is free software that allows you to edit RAW files without using any third-party software. It provides the same editing tools and features as Photoshop.
Adobe Camera Raw is available for macOS, iOS and Windows. It comes preinstalled with macOS. You can download it from here.
Coastal erosion and sediment supply to an urbanized estuary.
Chlorophyll a (Chl a), a common proxy for phytoplankton abundance, was sampled weekly at several sites in a suburbanised estuary in Victoria, Australia from September 2002 to August 2004. Chl a concentrations were generally higher than reported for other Victorian estuaries but, in agreement with other studies of eutrophic estuaries, were found to track strongly with in-flowing rainfall and runoff. For example, Chl a increased during the autumn and winter months as spring-borne runoff was brought to the estuary. Concurrently, salinity declined; accounting for up to 7-18% (i.e., median=11%) of Chl a variation over the sampling period. An inverse relationship was found between salinity and Chl a, supporting that salinity controls the supply of in-flowing water to the estuary, thus reducing the supply of suspended in-river particulate and dissolved organic matter. This implied’sea-fresh’ waters originating from internal supply from groundwater or a distant watershed were the dominant source of in-flowing suspended particulate and dissolved material to the estuary. To reconcile the relationship between Chl a and salinity, there must be a large’sea-fresh’ source of Chl a-bearing material in the estuary. The source appeared to be the low Chl a tidal creek estuary just upstream of the estuary mouth. These observations are consistent with the recent isolation of the estuary from the sea and its dilution by tidal creek waters from direct sea-level input to the estuary. The timing and intensity of storm-related in-flow and out-flow suggest that the impact of storm-related in-flow and out-flow on Chl a levels in the estuary is large enough to significantly impact management decisions.Developers Workshop: Measure before you build
Measurements can be challenging. Not everyone agrees on the precise definition of an “average.” And a “typical” may not mean the same thing to all parties.
That’s why measuring is so important.
I know that for a lot of you, the concept of measurement is a familiar one. It’s easy to think you can just count/weigh/consult a tool to get the information you need.
But that’s not how it works when you are developing
, more comprehensive and timely CD4 cell count testing among ART-treated patients at the point of switch to second-line ART can be used to more accurately ascertain changes in CD4 cell count over time. However, this approach may lead to delays in switching to second-line ART and thus would likely result in worse outcomes.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
BBN designed the data collection tools, performed the analysis and drafted the manuscript. DBN, PFM, MAB and HHN participated in the design of the study, interpretation of results and assisted with the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We would like to thank Dr. Mark Kowitt and the Division of Adult and Adolescent Medicine and Adult HIV at Baystate Medical Center who assisted with approval and initiation of this study.
This work was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health, NIAID, R01-AI079624.
In your November 13th e-mail, you requested we respond to the following:
1. Whether Wal-Mart would be willing to reduce shipping rates for a select
number of products.
2. Re: The National Department of Commerce report on the increase in fuel
prices during the past six months.
3. Re: The chairman of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission’s opinion
about the allocation of pipeline capacity between interstate and intrastate
Below are our responses:
1. From a business perspective, it makes sense for us to assume that we
should not sell below cost to any customer. We do not want the
perception that we are getting away with selling products below cost to
any customer. However, if we need to sell to a customer at a
pre-determined discounted price to meet their requirements, we do have
the capability to do so. Generally speaking, we do not want to sell
below cost because of our desire to increase our market share.
2. A spreadsheet of fuel price increases is attached. You can use this
document or the attached report to determine the price of fuel over
OS: Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP (32/64-bit)
Processor: 2.0 GHz Dual-Core or equivalent (Intel Core 2 Duo, AMD Athlon II X2 250 or higher)
Memory: 4 GB RAM
Graphics: 1 GB video card (ATI Radeon HD 3xxx/NVidia GeForce 8xxx or higher)
DirectX: Version 9.0c
Network: Broadband Internet connection