As you work through this chapter, keep in mind that Photoshop isn’t a stand-alone package. It’s closely related to programs that share its parent company. You can find out more about these programs in Book II, Chapters and.
Understanding Photoshop’s different modes
When you start a new Photoshop document or image, you’re in the Standard mode, as shown in the figure below.
Photoshop comes with many modes and settings that you can use to give specific jobs to your images. Depending on the mode you’re working in, the tools and palettes available to you will change, and you have different ways to achieve the same result. The most important modes are as follows:
Pixel: This mode lets you edit pixels, and the tools it offers are often just as simple.
Grayscale: This mode creates grayscale images. You can use it to copy images from one color space to another.
Multichannel: This mode lets you work on a series of images and layers as a group. It’s often the most convenient way to work for complex image edits.
Layers: The familiar editing interface in Photoshop is layered, and you can use layers to save multiple edits you make.
Screens: This mode lets you work in a series of interleaved screen windows.
Working in a separate window mode gives you a larger viewing area than working in the default one-window mode. You can have up to 15 windows open and switch among them for even more control over your workflow.
Discovering the different tools
Photoshop comes with an assortment of different tools, and you can find them on the Tools panel of the Photoshop workspace. Some of these tools are handy for beginning and intermediate users alike, and others require a little more experience and knowledge. The following sections help you sort out the difference. You can read about the Tools panel in Book I, Chapter 2.
The simplest tools in Photoshop are the Paintbrush tools. These tools are useful for filling in areas with different colors, styles, and so on. In the Options bar, as shown in Figure 9-1, you have separate controls for color, size, and style. Simply choose a tool and then click within an area of your image to start painting.
**Figure 9-1:** The Brush tools can work with color, line, and other effects.
Another important tool in
Why Use Photoshop Elements?
Because Photoshop is not a “free” program. It’s very expensive.
The cost of Photoshop could be as much as $2000 per year, or $500 per month (I’m not paying that, I’m thinking about your moms!).
The “Elements” version is the free version.
That’s right, you can get a license for Photoshop Elements for less than half the cost of the professional version.
Elements also contains the same editing tools as the pro version so you have fewer images to clean up after you start buying lots of professional software.
How to Use Photoshop Elements
So you’ve decided that you’d like to create some beautiful images. You have no Photoshop experience but need to create “high-quality” images. You want to be a photographer, graphic designer or maybe even a web designer.
You need to create great images. You need to create beautiful, high-quality images that will give your clients a favorable impression.
How is Photoshop Elements going to help you?
Go into Photoshop elements and start making images. Photoshop Elements is easy to use.
Create, Save and Print your images.
Create new files and layers.
Place an image on a Layer
Create a clipping mask
Add a Cutout Mask
Place a layer on a new or existing layer
Transform and Rotate layers
Fix an image
Adjust the Brightness/Contrast or Photo Filters
Skew or Warp layers
Add gradients and effects
Straighten and Rotate Layers
Drag and Drop
Resize an image and re-sizing certain layers
Change the Background Color
Add and subtract a Layer
Convert a layer to a Brush
Add more image layers
Warp an image
Change the Blend Mode for an image
Print and Scan Images
Import images to Photos
Convert from JPEG
Import from Flash, QuickTime, DVD or CD
Import from Scanner
Create a New File
Create a New Collection
Create a New Document
Create a Document From File
On-demand food production is poised to benefit society by reducing food-related health problems and food waste, and by enabling people to lead healthier and more productive lives. Driven by an impending and anticipated increase in population, greater food demand, changes in dietary patterns, and changing health-related beliefs and attitudes, the food system faces a fundamental transformation into food production and consumption systems that are more sustainable than the current system.
The food sector is an important part of the economy and society, supporting employment (3.1 million jobs) and a wide array of other economic activities. The food system as a whole comprises multiple actors, among which farmers, food processors, distributors, retailers, consumers, and other government and non-government institutions. By packaging, distributing, selling, and consuming foods, they contribute to the global food supply.
Yet, at the same time, the food sector is subject to a number of challenges. Some of these, including societal pressures to be part of so-called “sustainable living”, changing consumer preferences and attitudes towards food, and the ever-increasing burden of chronic, non-communicable diseases that are treated with pharmaceuticals or surgery, are challenges that society faces. Others, including increasing strains on land, water, and other resources, rising food prices, and the increasing imbalance between supply and demand in the food system, are challenges the food sector itself faces.
Against this backdrop, research and policy efforts have been put in place to develop the tools, capacity, and knowledge required to formulate and implement policy solutions. A global framework for undertaking research, policy, and practice (GRIPP) was developed. This framework defines four streams of work. In the first, “research”, the nature and scope of a given problem is identified, and the appropriate research questions are formulated.
In the second, “policy”, the problem is prioritized and the most appropriate policy approaches are identified. In the third, “practice”, policy solutions are implemented, in order to create a better future food system. In the final, “learning”, the knowledge and skills gained in the policy implementation are acquired to strengthen further implementation efforts.
These streams are relevant in any food-related setting. Once a problem has been identified, policy solutions can be formulated, in terms of a combination of legislation, regulation, incentives, or disincentives, and interventions at multiple scales, from a local level to global. Implementing these can
* **Paint Bucket**. The Paint Bucket can be used for anything from removing an entire background color to painting colors and patterns. You can use the Paint Bucket to erase, lighten or darken shades in an image.
* **Pen Tool**. The Pen Tool’s 10 points are useful for creating a variety of shapes, including text effects, frames and lines.
* **Grainy Brush**. The Grainy Brush is one of the most common brushes that can be used for many effects. With this tool, you can add grainy effects to an image, as well as removing them, creating cracks and other defects, and removing imperfections from the photo. You can use the Grainy Brush to create the illusion of grains on objects.
* **Brush Settings**. You can make any brush you create follow a particular path, a type of stroke, a gradient, a gradient opacity, or even a pattern. You can also adjust many properties such as size, shape, size, and color.
* **Photo Filter**. The Photo Filter tool applies various effects to an image, including soft focus, defocus, and other effects. You can use the Photo Filter as a quick way to create effects for images such as bokeh. You can apply effects to an image without the use of layers, by using the Photo Filter from the Effects menu.
* **Pencil**. The Pencil tool can be used for creating very precise lines that you can then use for various effects.
* **Color Tools**. You can use the Color Tabs and Chroma Key tools to change or clone colors on an image. They can be used to repair colors in an image, or to create and edit colors for images.
* **Brush**. Using the Brush tool, you can create and edit brush settings, which include size, shape, size, color, and opacity. You can use brushes to create abstract patterns on images, to add drops of color, or to remove unwanted objects from an image.
* **Patterns**. The Patterns tool is useful for creating patterns and textures that can be placed on an image and used to add depth and dimension to the photo.
Photoshop’s brushes are among the most powerful tools in all of the digital imaging software. For example, you can use the Brush tool for applying textures such as spots, cracks, halftone dots,
Mac OS X 10.1 or later
High-Speed Internet Connection
Java Runtime Environment version 1.6 or later
Supported browsers include IE, Mozilla Firefox, and Opera.
Frequently Asked Questions
How do I become a LEGO Designer?
You can visit the official LEGO Master Builder website and follow the instructions to become a LEGO Designer. It’s free to apply and you only need to be 18 years old. LEGO Master Builders usually take 2 to 3 years to become an official LEGO Master